Uninterruptible Power Supply

An Uninterruptible Power Supply, also uninterruptible power source, UPS or battery/flywheel backup, is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source, typically the utility mains, fails. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide instantaneous or near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attached batteries and associated electronic circuitry for low power users, and or by means of diesel generators and flywheels for high power users. The on-battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short 515 minutes being typical for smaller units but sufficient to allow time to bring an auxiliary power source on line, or to properly shut down the protected equipment.

While not limited to protecting any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centres, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption and/or data loss. UPS unit range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor (around 200 VA rating) to large units powering entire data centres, buildings, or even cities.

The general categories of modern UPS systems are on-line, line-interactive or standby. An on-line UPS uses a “double conversion” method of accepting AC input, rectifying to DC for passing through the rechargeable battery (or battery strings), then inverting back to 120V/240V AC for powering the protected equipment. A line-interactive UPS maintains the inverter in line and redirects the battery’s DC current path from the normal charging mode to supplying current when power is lost. In a standby (“off-line”) system the load is powered directly by the input power and the backup power circuitry is only invoked when the utility power fails. Most UPS below 1 kVA are of the line-interactive or standby variety which are usually less expensive.

The primary role of any UPS is to provide short-term power when the input power source fails. However, most UPS units are also capable in varying degrees of correcting common utility power problems such as: Power failure; Surge; Sag; Spikes; Noise; Frequency instability and Harmonic distortion.

The author is associated with IPFonline

http://www.ipfonline.com is India’s No. 1 Industrial Product Finder. The portal is a veritable storehouse of information on industrial products/services.

Supply Chain Training

Superior supply chain training is widely available internationally, either delivered in open public courses or customized specifically for corporate in-house use. You are advised to research carefully what is available making sure that the organization you select for training has the expertise in the functions that you require.


A vital element in the supply chain is purchasing, also called sourcing or procurement, where it is recommended that aspiring professionals study up to an advanced level. Training in this field covers the whole range of competencies in purchasing including supplier selection, cost reduction techniques, and contracting. New trends that are of topical interest can be structured into a course that will address specific issues for your company such as:


• Low cost country sourcing from China, India etc.

• Understanding Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of a commodity

• Using e-procurement (on-line bidding) to create efficiencies

• New supplier evaluation and on-going supplier development

• Supplier management and performance monitoring (KPIs)


Many academies and universities supply educational opportunities in supply chain. However, to access the latest thinking and understand the up-to-date technologies available it is advisable to find an established and knowledgeable supply chain training consultancy that has specific experience and skill that it can apply to your industry or your geographic region. Some aspects of the supply chain are quite technical and need experts to explain certain applications and processes. In-house training can be developed to assist with value analysis and innovation within the entire supply chain, from the early stages of forecasting and planning through to manufacturing, warehouse management, inventory control and logistics.


Leadership training is as important in supply chain as any other business functional area. To be a supply chain manager or director means that you have to learn how to integrate all aspects of the supply chain to deliver optimum performance. Some of the competencies that will be sought after in the supply chain function in the future will be technology-based so I.T. skills will be key. People with experience in computer simulation, financial modeling and statistical analysis will attract a premium.


The global marketplace is changing rapidly and supply chain professionals need to understand their customers, both internal and external as well as their suppliers. Working across many countries and regions of the world using the new connectivity provides challenges not known a decade ago. Training can be structured to address cultural and language issues to enhance communication in your company. It is important to work with a professional and specialist supply chain training company that can fulfill your particular needs.

Supply chain trainings  in Belgium, Clear Vantage, offers supply chain, purchasing and procurement consulting solutions and trainings to secure best cost of ownership.

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Supply Chain Consultants

Using supply chain consultants as advisors on strategic cost reduction and how to create competitive advantage is becoming a requirement rather than a nice-to-have intervention. Most successful companies have tackled making savings in conventional ways such as achieving economies of scale, leveraging their purchasing and making obvious process improvements but they are finding that this is not enough.

Supply chains are becoming more complex all the time as the global business environment is constantly changing. To stay competitive firms need to move fast to keep ahead and innovative companies are looking deep into their supply chain structures, relationships and workflows to find long-term cost reduction solutions. For this they need help.

So here are some of the potential areas supply chain consultants can demonstrate added value:

Technology Enablement
People alignment
Minimising risk
Sustainability and green issues
Supply Chain Integration

Using the right technologies
Technology is an enabler, not an end in itself. Advances in I.T software can provide solutions to problems that were previously too challenging for non-experts to tackle such as planning and demand management through to execution and asset management.

Supply chain experts and consultants use statistical and analytical tools applying the relevant technology to develop workable solutions. One aim is to integrate various disparate supply chain functions by streamlining the processes. An example of the successful application of technology to warehousing, inventory and logistics is the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a data collection technology that uses electronic tags for storing data. It can also be used to track humans!

Many supply chain consultants have alliance partnerships with leading vendors of I.T solutions and ERP systems and some specialize by industry sector. Clients rely on their ERP partners for supply chain advice and require them to develop customized solutions.

Using the right tools
However, sometimes clients need their supply chain consultants to provide informed and impartial advice. Consultants need to devise supply chain strategies based on an organization’s operations, resources, and other capabilities and not design solutions around the available technologies.

Analytical tools such as Six Sigma can detect defective processes and implement remedies that can reduce costs and provide efficiencies. Lean manufacturing techniques aim to eliminate waste and deliver better “value” for customers. The best consultants have qualifications and experience in using these tools and can provide quick results without major upheavals to the business.

Choosing the right supply chain consultants depends on the industry you are in, the technology you use and your appetite for continuous improvement in the supply chain.

Supply chain consultants in Belgium, Clear Vantage, offers supply chain, purchasing and procurement consulting solutions and trainings to secure best cost of ownership

Supply Chain Experts

There are supply chain experts available to solve all your problems. Some specialize in the application of new technologies, some focus on revised strategies and better management and others use tried-and-tested tools to improve efficiencies across the supply chain. Here’s some areas that are current challenges in organizations.


The outsourcing of key functions in business to low-cost countries has grown and this trend has introduced more partners and therefore more complexity into the supply chain. Raw material suppliers, service organizations and logistics sub-contractors mean more complicated processes and more “distances” that material and information must travel. Companies need to review their operating models to be more flexible and to work in a more collaborative manner so that they can fulfill customer requirements whilst benefitting from outsourcing.

Data and technology

Lack of data or errors in critical supply-chain information contribute to organizations’ inability to manage their supply chain processes effectively. Organizations need information systems that link applications across multiple partners, languages, geographies and cultures. Software collaboration tools can identify these weak links and supply chain professionals can take action to mitigate their impact. However, some of these tools come with different capabilities and degrees of difficulty in terms of implementation so often this is where expert help is needed.

Risk management

CEOs today have a new and intense focus on risk, compliance and governance and the supply chain is one key area that is under scrutiny. Increasing supplier disruptions, logistics delays, product recalls and safety issues are introducing new challenges into supply chains. Many businesses are ill-prepared to handle the rising risk levels and so external intervention from experts can provide assistance in this area.


Day-to-day operations need to carry on so innovation can sometimes take a back seat. It is more than improving technologies, training people or streamlining a process. It requires input from suppliers, internal users, business partners and customers combined with the necessary commitment from stakeholders and executive leadership.

Often ideas are sidelined or not expanded upon because people work in silos or they are just too tied up in their own sub-process in the supply chain. Taking a step back, an external view can provide insights into how to develop and harness improvement plans.

Many organizations are dealing with these challenges and new ones like sustainability and “green” issues, environmental legislation, and supplier quality. Companies can become more competitive through structured interventions by supply chain experts.

Supply chain consultants  in Belgium, Clear Vantage, offers supply chain, purchasing and procurement consulting solutions and trainings  to secure best cost of ownership

Supply Chain Remodelling

The efficiency of a supply chain can often depend upon design and distribution. Reviewing a distribution network can sometimes highlight many faults within it.

Often companies do not have the time or logistics analysis capabilities to do this task themselves. This is where a logistics consultant can come in and offer strategic advice. These consultants can explore every option when it comes to supply chain remodelling.

The supply chain, including everything from warehouse manufacturing to final delivery, involves several stages and is key to the final output of a company’s products. Supply chain modelling can include transport costs, road links and inventory issues.

Sometimes companies need to centralise operations in order to become more efficient. For instance they may have several warehouses but could streamline them down to reduce manufacturing and distribution costs. Warehouse design and layout is also key to efficiency.

Often new warehouse and distribution strategies proposed by supply chain consulting need to be provided in a very short space of time, particularly if a solution is being created for a large manufacturing company.

When modelling a new supply chain the logistics consultants must take into account risk factors created by any new network proposed, then supply their findings to the company in order to determine whether the solution is right for them.

Quality assurance for these major manufacturers is also essential. For instance if a manufacturer supplies a food product, any change in warehousing and distribution must not compromise quality.

When assessing a new distribution model, an analysis of transport and warehousing costs must be made by supply chain engineers, including inbound and outbound product flows.

Combining different product streams can be explored, to increase delivery size. This will help reduce the number of road miles and journeys required.

So when thinking about remodelling your supply chain, use the services of a logistics consultant to determine what solution is best for your business.

Total Logistics are leading supply chain and logistics consultants. The provide solutions for warehouse and supply chain remodelling in order to make manufacturing companies more efficient. For more information on their range of services visit http://www.total-logistics.eu.com/

Professional Tattoo Supply



Getting professional tattoo supply is very tough. It is very important for a professional tattoo artist to get the best professional tattoo supply. He cannot compromise with the quality of the supply he uses. He needs to know all the information and the details of the supply he is ordering or using. You can make use of the internet to get all the details you need.


As a number of people get allergy reactions on their skin, so it is very important for the tattoo artist to use the best professional tattoo supply only. There are a number of sites on the internet from where you can all the information you need on the tattoo supplies. You can compare the prices of the different tattoo supplies too. This will give a better idea on which tattoo supply to choose. In case you are strict on money, then comparing the professional tattoo supplies will give a very clear cut idea on which tattoo supply to pick.


While tattooing a person, it is very important it to cautious. The needle used to make a tattoo is supposed to be sterilised to avoid any kind of infections. The tattoo kit should be very clean. Getting an excellent professional tattoo supply is very important and so it makes it very difficult for the tattoo artist to choose the perfect one. Failing to find the right kit will result in dissatisfaction of the customer which will get you a bad name. With a bad name, it will be difficult for you to survive in the business.


There are several online stores which will provide you with the best kit according to your needs. These kits are also not all the expensive. You will find them at discounted prices. Make sure you know everything about the site you are dealing with. Nearly all the websites will have the pictures of all the supplies of the kit. No not get cheated by overpaying. A beginner always has a limited budget. These websites are your best options.


The best part of shopping online in UK is that the UK law on e-commerce is very strict. Regular purchases are not covered in online shopping. One of the other benefits include the return period and reason of return given for any product bought online. While shopping elsewhere, companies do not allow returns easily. But on purchasing online, you can definitely send back the tattoo kit in case you are satisfied with it and you will get the full refund in a short period of time.




For details on tattoo kits – –professional tattoo supply

Supply Demand Balance

In various sources you may find different explanation of the engine that is behind the stock market trend. Still the main reason of price movements on free market is supply demand balance. If the buyers (those who demand) are rushing with buying and, in order to buy for sure, are ready to pay price which is higher than the bid price of the sellers (suppliers of the stock shares) then the price of these stock shares are rising. The opposite is true for sellers who could be in panic or have strong desire to sell as soon as possible even at cheaper than the market ask price. These sellers may push price down and they are the main reason of declining markets.

Supply / demand balance is the balance between buyers and sellers. If there are more sellers on the market and they are pushing the price of the stocks down then supply / demand balance is in the favor of selling markets. If number of buyers is bigger and their demand to buy is stronger, then supply / demand balance is in the favor of the bullish markets.

The other question is what affects the number of buyers and sellers. Here we come to most known and discussed engines of the market moments. It could be economic reports: good reports attract investors to invest and bad economic and earnings data scare traders. It could be dollar trend: In September 2010 decline in US dollar has pressed many investors to pull out funds from the money markets and inject them in the stock market (compare S&P 500, Nasdaq 100 and DJI trends with US Dollar index trend). Taxes, interest rates, price on gold and oil, political announcements – all of this may scare investors from the market or push them to bring more money into the stock market.

If you take a look at the main US indexes, you will see that at the current moment we may see strong increase in volume on the S&P 500, Nasdaq 100, DJI, Russell 200 and other indexes. The US indexes are traded at their high levels, such huge volume indicates reshuffling of the trading position by the big number of investors. Big volume surges reveal that the big number of shares is changing hands. If over the last one and a half month the US indexes were trending up and majority of the investors were buying, then, now, we may say that many of these investors became scared of something and they started to sell in huge volumes and that is why we see strong increase in trading volume. That means that we are witnessing the shift in the supply / demand balance and this could be a signal to stay on the alert. Furthermore, if the sellers will take over the buyers we could be heading into the bear market very soon.

Charts, quotes, technical analysis, signals for indexes and exchanges (S&P 500, Nasdaq 100, DJI, etc) are essential in options trading, trading index derivatives (QQQQ, SPY, DIA, etc), index emini futures and index tracking funds.

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Supply Chain Trainings

Supply Chain training is available locally and internationally for all aspects of the supply chain for everyone, irrespective of their current level of achievement. In fact, the amount of choice is overwhelming. Courses and workshops are delivered electronically by e-learning, distance learning, home DVDs, webinars and in the classroom. Events and conferences are held in most developed countries on a regular basis to keep a person up to date with the latest thinking and trends.

If you are starting out in supply chain, there are courses available on the supply chain “foundation skills”. This will cover the concepts and processes, the tools and techniques of supply chain management. This provides a base to build on and will highlight areas of interest for further study.

Topics include planning which spans the entire scope of the supply chain. The functional areas listed vertically above are underpinned by inventory management and customer service management. All these topics have available training at entry level through to professional competency.

Anyone considering undergoing training in any of these functional areas should first establish the reputation of the institution and the relevance of the course material. Look for certification of courses by the association that endorses the course content, e.g. Institute of Supply Management (ISM), Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply (CIPS) or The Association for Operations Management (APICS).

Many academic institutions and business schools provide graduate and post-graduate training in supply chain management, some specialize by industry sector or by technical content. In the USA, W.P Carey Business School at Arizona State and Rutgers Business School are two of these. These institutions will try to anticipate evolutions in supply chains and apply creative thinking to produce workable solutions. A noticeable trend is the transition from an industrial operation to a more scientific and technology driven one. This implies a substantial change in logistics practices between supply chain partners as they struggle to establish efficient and effective solutions for end-customers.

As with all professions, leadership is taught with particular reference to the overall function of supply chain. Leaders in this context learn how to integrate all aspects of the supply chain for optimum performance. Advanced technical skills such as “lean” manufacturing and Six Sigma are taught to enable employees to implement solutions that lead to value creation for their organizations. Experienced people with abilities in computer simulation, financial modeling and statistical analysis will be increasingly sought after. With the advent of the many different ways of delivering the training, everyone can find a medium to suit themselves. Supply chain training can benefit all those working in the profession to advance their career.

Supply chain consultants  in Belgium, Clear Vantage, offers supply chain, purchasing and procurement consulting solutions and supply chain trainings  to secure best cost of ownership

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Touch Screen Supply Chain

Executive Summary
This white paper provides an overview of the touchscreen supply chain. It describes the key components of the supply chain and the touchscreen modules available in the market.

A detailed understanding of the capacitive touchscreen supply chain is vital for customers considering touchscreen end products. The engagement model chosen should match the in-house design capabilities, component supplier value added services, and available options for module design and supply.

Controller IC Supplier
The capacitive touchscreen controller is a semiconductor device which senses finger position on a touchscreen sensor. Different silicon architectures and sensing methods are used by various suppliers, which is beyond the scope of this document. Capacitive controllers can be grouped into two broad categories.

Projected Capacitive
This method senses finger position on a sensor from the electric field projected through a substrate. It is typically implemented with one or more patterned ITO layers, applied to one or more transparent substrates. Projected capacitive is very durable, because users touch the top of a glass or plastic substrate, while the ITO layers are protected below. Coordinates are calculated from measuring signals off patterned ITO with a deterministic position. This makes projected sensing more accurate and repeatable than other capacitive sensing methods. Projected capacitive controllers generally require more sensing input pins for larger screens. In practical terms, they are limited to approximately a 10″ diagonal screen for single chip solutions. Alternative solutions using multiple controller ICs or unique ITO patterning are also possible.

Surface Capacitive
This method employs a single sheet transparent conductor applied to the sensor substrate, typically ITO on glass, film, or plastic. The method is cost effective and suitable for high volume manufacture with many well known techniques. Because finger position is determined by four sensors on the corners or edges of the panel, touchscreens may be scaled to thirty or more inches without increasing the controller IC pin count. There are also significant drawbacks, especially for smaller screens. First, sensing is accomplished via ITO on top of the touchscreen substrate. Even though the ITO may be protected by a thin hard coat, it is susceptible to scratches from fingers, rings, keys, and so on. In addition, inherent non-linearity of the sensing field for surface capacitive must be corrected though edge patterning, software, or hardware methods. This linearization effect becomes more pronounced with smaller screens. Other implementation details such as proximity effect and finger shadow must also be addressed.

Flex Supplier
Flexible printed circuit assemblies (flex) are used to connect the touchscreen sensor to a system controller board. The flex sometimes has a touchscreen controller mounted for supply as a “flex module”. Alternatively, a simple flex circuit without controller may be supplied to the sensor manufacturer, in which case a controller IC is built into the customers’ system controller board.

Sensor Supplier
Typically referred to as the “glass” or “film” supplier, this member of the supply chain has in-house capabilities to create conductive patterning on a transparent substrate material. The most common conductor is indium-tin oxide (ITO) used for its relatively low resistance and high optical clarity. Other transparent conductors are in use or in development, but are not yet main stream. Typical sensor substrates are glass, film, or polycarbonate plastic derivatives. Some sensor suppliers have additional vertical integration, such as touchscreen controller IC ASIC products, electrical engineering for controller boards, LCD supply, flex connector supply, or complete module integration.

LCD Supplier
Touchscreens are typically used in conjunction with video displays, so it is logical for LCD manufacturers to be essential in the supply chain. Their core competencies already involve depositing patterned ITO on glass and flex circuit design for LCD manufacture. It is therefore much easier for them to vertically integrate these key elements of the touchscreen supply chain. LCD manufacturers have chosen to simply supply displays to a third party for integration into touchscreen modules, or integrate the controller, sensor glass, or flex circuit into their assembly process.

Supply Chain Logistics
Supply chain logistics for touchscreen manufacture has several permutations, depending on the supplier-customer sales engagement, customer preferred business model, and vertical integration of each supplier. Customers may initially consider purchasing touchscreen controllers, sensors, flex, and LCD directly from each supplier, and performing their own design and integration. Although this may have perceived cost advantages, it places all design, performance, and quality issues directly on the customer. Each touchscreen design is unique, so the controller must be configured to work properly with the sensor characteristics, LCD noise, and environmental and industrial design factors. This is often outside the customers’ capabilities for a first design. The more often used approach is for customers to purchase a custom designed and tested known good “touchscreen module”, from one of the supply chain members.

Touchscreen Modules
Touchscreen modules are sold in three main varieties depending on the specific end customer:

Flex Module
This is a combination of controller IC and flexible printed circuit. Flex modules are mainly purchased by ITO sensor suppliers to reduce touchscreen design cycle time and improve touchscreen yield. The flex module consists of a flexible circuit with an attached touchscreen controller IC, tested as a known good unit. Flex modules are typically supplied to ITO manufacturers or design end customers via controller IC distribution channels. For the Asian market, these are typically “Stocking Reps”, who function as a combination of manufacturer representatives and value added supply chain managers.

Touchscreen Module
This product combines a flex module and ITO sensor. Using the flex module improves time to market and product reliability, while maintaining flexibility for sensor design. Touchscreen modules are usually offered by suppliers of the ITO sensor glass or film to large OEM or ODM design end customers. Some controller IC manufacturers also offer complete touchscreen modules for ease of engineering design, although this offering is usually limited to large direct customers. Most large customers have very specific marketing requirements for industrial design and product “look and feel”. Subsequently, very few companies use an off-the-shelf touchscreen module. The majority are custom designed directly with component suppliers.

Touchscreen LCD Module
This is the highest level of integration. It combines a touchscreen module with an LCD to create a full touch sensitive display device. Design end customers see this device as a black box, capable of displaying images and sending touch coordinates to the main system. It is highly preferable in terms of manufacturing reliability, because each unit guarantees a known good display and touch interface. Some LCD manufacturers offer this type of module as a product to the general market. For high volume OEM customers, touch sensor manufacturers also take LCDs on consignment and produce a touchscreen LCD module from glass, flex, and controller IC components.

Understanding the details of how touchscreens are produced helps you make the right choice of technology and suppliers for your touchscreen enabled device.

Darrin Vallis

Medex Supply Review

With one of the largest varieties of online medical, surgical, and diagnostic supplies, Medex Supply can supply your medical facility with all the necessary medical supplies to ensure a healthy, safe and sterile environment. Medex Supply is a #1 favorite with Universities, Hospitals, Doctors, Nurses, Schools, Government agencies and more.

The Nonin 3100 WristOx is a small, lightweight pulse oximeter designed to be worn comfortably on the wrist.

The compact design of the WristOx is intended to give the patient greater freedom while improving patient compliance.

Ideal for monitoring daily activities and for overnight studies.

The Nonin 3100 Wristox offers:

Small – Fits comfortably on the patient’s wrist.
Versatile – Ideal for short or long term monitoring applications.
Powerful – 24 hours of battery life and 33 hours of non-volatile memory.
Easy-to-Use – Simply plug in the sensor and go!
Large easy-to-read LCD.
3-year warranty.

Nonin 3100 WristOx Specifications:

Oxygen Saturation Range (%SpO2) 0% to 100%.

Pulse Rate Range 18 to 300 pulses per minute.

Numeric Displays 3-digit Indicators.

Pulse Indicator Pulse Strength Bargraph.

Accuracy Blood Oxygen Saturation (%SpO2) ( 1 S.D.)a 70% to 100% 2 digits.

Accuracy Pulse Rate 3%.

Measurement Wavelengths and Output Power Red 660 nanometers @ 3 mw nominal.

Measurement Wavelengths and Output Power Infrared 910 nanometers @ 3 mw nominal.

Operating Altitude Up to 40,000 feet.

Hyperbaric Pressure Up to 4 atmospheres.

Operating Temperature +32 to +122F (+0 to +50C).

Storage/Transportation 14 to +122F (-10 to +50C).

Humidity Operating 10% to 90% noncondensing.

Humidity Storage/Transportation 10% to 95% noncondensing.

Power Requirements Two 1.5V alkaline N-cell batteries.

Battery Life Operating minimum 24 hours of continuous operation.

Dimensions (without sensor or strap) 2 in H x 1.75 in W x 0.75 in D.(5.08 cm H x 4.445 cm W x 1.905 cm D).

Weight ~0.88 oz. without batteries or wrist strap (~24.95 g without batteries or wrist strap).

Memory Type Nonvolatile 33 hours @ 4 sec. data storage rate; 16 hours @ 2 sec. rate; 8 hours @ 1 sec. rate.
The PalmSAT? 2500 series are small, yet versatile digital pulse oximeters for accurate assessment of blood oxygen saturation and pulse rate. Choose alarm or non-alarm versions for your portable monitoring needs.